Sweet potato is the potato of the tropics. It is a tough crop, able to grow in arid conditions and with little demand for either water or fertilizer. Sweet potato ranks as the world’s seventh most important food crop, principally because of its versatility and adaptability.
The sweet potato is high in carbohydrates and vitamin A and can produce more edible energy per hectare per day than wheat, rice or cassava. The yellow-orange fleshed varieties provide particularly high quantities of Vitamins A and C. The leaves can also be eaten, providing additional protein, vitamins and minerals.
Over 95 percent of the global sweet potato crop is produced in developing countries, where it is the fifth most important food crop in terms of fresh weight. More than 130 million tons are produced per year, with China supplying about 80% of the world’s production. Nearly half of the sweet potatoes produced in Asia are used for animal feed, with the remainder primarily used for human consumption. African farmers produce only about 7 million tons of sweet potatoes annually but most of the crop is cultivated for human consumption. Latin America, the original home of the sweet potato, produces 1.9 million tons annually.
In response to widespread Vitamin A deficiency that results in blindness and even death for 250,000-500,000 African children a year, project by the International Potato Center, conducted in Eastern and Southern Africa over the past ten years, has identified a palatable yellow-orange variety palatable to Africans which is high in Vitamin A, to substitute the traditionally grown white fleshed varieties which are low in vitamin A.